Edgar Degas, エドガー・ドガ
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エドガー・ドガ（Edgar Degas, 1834年7月19日 - 1917年9月27日）は、フランスの印象派の画家。フルネームはイレール・ジェルマン・エドガー・ドガ（Hilaire Germain Edgar de Gas）。
1834年、パリに銀行家の息子として生まれる。「ドガ」（de Gas）という貴族風の苗字を持つが、ドガ家はフランス革命後に勢力を伸ばした新興ブルジョワで、エドガー・ドガの生まれた頃にはさほど裕福ではなかったらしい。 ドガは1855年、エコール・デ・ボザール（官立美術学校）でアングル派の画家ルイ・ラモートに師事した。1856年、1858年にはイタリアを訪れ、古典美術を研究している。
After returning from Italy, Degas copied paintings at the Louvre, but lived a mostly uneventful life, until 1865 when some of his works were accepted in the Salon. During the next five years, Degas had additional works accepted in the Salon, and gradually gained respect in the world of conventional art (Benedek "Chronology."). In 1870, Degas's life was changed by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. During the war, Degas served in the National Guard to defend Paris (Mannering 6), allowing little time for painting.
Following the war, Degas visited his brother, Rene, in New Orleans and produced a number of works before returning to Paris in 1873 (Mannering 6). Soon after his return, in 1874, Degas helped to organize an art show that became known as the First Impressionist Exhibition (Benedek "Chronology."). The Impressionists held seven additional shows, the last in 1886, and Degas showed his work in all but one (Mannering 6-7). Also showing works in these exhibitions was Degas's "friend and rival"(Mannering 5), Edouard Manet, who helped shaped the works of Degas(Mannering 5). At around the same time, Degas also became an amateur photographer, both for pleasure, and in order to accurately capture action for painting (Hartt 365).
Degas also had the opportunity, or perhaps curse, of living without monetary security. This occurred after the death of his father, when various debts forced him to sell his collection of art, live more modestly, and depend on his artwork for income (Cannaday 936-937). As the years passed, Degas became isolated due, in part, to his belief "that a painter could have no personal life."(Cannaday 929). As a result of this, he also never married and spent the last years of his life "aimlessly wandering the streets of Paris"(Mannering 7) before dying in 1917.
The Dance Class (La Classe de Danse), painted 1874.
Degas is often identified as an Impressionist, an understandable, but erroneous belief. (Mannering 7). Degas was different from the impressionists in that he "never adopted the Impressionist color fleck"(Hartt 365). and "disapproved of their work" (Mannering 7). Degas is, however, described more accurately as an impressionist than as a member of any other movement. Impressionism was a short, varied movement during 1860s and 70s that grew out of realism and the ideas of two painters, Courbet and Corot. The movement used bright, "dazzling" colors, while still concentrating primarily on the effects of light (Hartt 357-358). The movement, which also focused on "the division of tone,"("Impressionism", 953) was started by a group of painters who met each other in Paris around 1860 ("Impressionism", 953). The impressionists exhibited their paintings eight times between 1874 and 1886 and were insultingly given their name by Louis Leroy at the time of their first exhibition. However, they were not universally disliked ,and, by the early 1880s, the general public had begun to accept their art. Unfortunately, the group was, by that time, breaking up both artistically and geographically, thus ending the Impressionist movement by the late 1880s("Impressionism" 953-955).
Degas, as at best a partial member of the impressionist group, had his own distinct style, one developed from two very different influences, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, and Japanese prints (Dorra, 208). Degas, though famous for horses and dancers, began with conventional historical paintings such as The Young Spartans. During his early career, Degas also painted portraits of both individuals and groups, for example, The Belelli Family. However, even in these early paintings, Degas began to show the style that he would later develop by cropping paintings awkwardly, implying tensions, and portraying historical subjects in a less idealized manner (Mannering 11-13). Also during this early period, Degas painted about the tensions present between men and women (Benedek "Style.").
The above explanation comes from 出典: フリー百科事典"ウィキペディア"